Sunday, March 31, 2019
outgo respect Procurement Bids in Council ServicesEmpirical WorkThis idea is an empirical study on the st regularizegic significance that better Value (BV) Procurement adds to Birmingham metropolis Council. The aim of the proposed look is to quantify the strategic yoke between the BV and the contemporary strategic Procurement. Then to create a exemplar which forget evaluate the contribution of the strategy when applied to Birmingham City Council.Best Value was introduced into the public sector in 1998, announced through the presidential terms clean-living composing Modern Local Government in Touch with the People. This report introduced extensive reform of local anaesthetic government, including the late initiative of BV. Within this BV is the e-Government, Community Planning, strategic Partnerships and new political forethought structures (White Paper 1998).The theory of Best Value was aimed at improving local government runs this was introduced in the Local Governm ent Act 1999. BV replaced the one-time(a) system of Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT), and required local authorities to examine over a period of five years, the method in which they dole out all their functions. This would understand the form of consultation with the local community to present the most effective, economic and efficient services (Local Government Act 1999).The Governments goal to reform local government continued and in 2001 they published a further white paper entitled fortified Local Leadership, gauge Public Services. Addressed within this paper were issues that included unassailable community leadership, continuous improvement, comprehensive performance assessment, financial freedom and modernization of finance systems (White Paper 2001).The report in 2001 Delivering Better Services for Citizens, a review of local government procurement in England was published as a consultation paper. The report included the following recommendation in that respe ct should be clear political responsibility for procurement, with elected members taking a strategic role in securing outcomes. Best Value is about open frame down the boundaries between the public and private sectors in local service delivery. (The Byatt Report 2001)This enquiry paper is based on the government white papers and reports which initially defined BV in procurement and established Strategic Management tools used to identify strategic choice within local authorities. The conceptual analytic thinking is based on identifying the congruence of strategic tie in between the BV definition and chosen Strategic Management tools.The focus of the paper is Birmingham City Councils BV practices, and this will be invoiced against the resulting model. The output of this search is to measure the strategic worth of Best Value and the strategic worth of Birmingham City Councils delivery of Best Value. The paper will evaluate the relative merits of duodecimal and qualitative researc h methodologies.MethodologyThe rationale of this chapter is to comp ar and controvert the research methods that could be used for this empirical research paper. When researching any paper there are numerous methods for collecting data, they do not always conjure up workable data that is easy to analysis. Therefore it is vital to review and visualize the methods that will be employed.Before beginning any of the research a time scale will be composed, this will plan and located targets for the research. This plan is flexible, to allow for any considerable changes to the project due to upset(prenominal) research findings. Theoretically, the proposal should draw attention to any difficulties with the research call into question and the access to the data.Secondary inquiryThe secondary research will discuss the theories and concepts which exist on the topic and be presented in the literature review. The findings from the first research are then tested on these theories for va lidity (Saunders, M. et al 1997). Tertiary data sources will assist in the search for secondary data, this will reveal books, journals, newspaper articles, and Internet addresses on the topic (Bell, J. 2005). This function of the research will present some of the conclusions from the relevant Governments White Papers as a secondary source of research data.Primary ResearchPrimary research is vital to the project as it produces the raw data on the current situation in the establishments. A consideration when gathering primary research data, is adjudgeing the consent of two the giving medication and privates prior to initiating the research and this data must remain within the mount of the project (Saunders et al 1997).Primary Research MethodsMethodType of ResearchCharacteristics, Benefits and shortcomingsPostal panoramaQuantitativeCost is lowResponse rate can be poorAnswers may be incompleteResponses are pre-coded and simple so hoi polloi can understand themthis can mean valu e the quality of information provided is lower than from another(prenominal) methodsTelephone and/or netmail surveyQuantitativeCost effective method of achieving stout take in allowing generalisations to be madeResponses are pre-coded Certain groups do not seduce access to the telephone, so may be excluded from the sampleIt is difficult to expect sensitive questions over the telephoneWorks well with employersFace-to-face surveyQuantitativeincludes both open questions as pre-codedCan achieve robust sample allowing generalisations if sufficient poetry are surveyedExpensive and time-consuming to executive directorIdeal for gathering sensitive information or exploring complicated issuesinterview softIn depth and detailed information can be gatheredInterviewers are allowed more flexibilityAnswers to open questions can be difficult and time-consuming to analyseExpensive and time-consuming to administrator concentre groupQualitativeA group discussion with around 8-12 peopleCan last s up to 3 hoursCapitalises on interaction between participantsParticipants are not representative of wider population which does not allow for generalisation skilful method for gathering sensitive dataRequires careful and unbiased analysisCase studyQualitativeResearcher gains understanding of a individuals get a lineProvides good quotations and rich dataCan bring alive other research, such as survey dataFindings cannot be generalised to a wider populationQualitative ResearchQualitative research is not fitting quality, it is the starting point where individuals understand and can talk about their lives. Qualitative studies attempt to explain social phenomena (for example experience, attitudes, behaviour, interactions and belief) in terms of the wider contexts of individuals lives (Cresswell, J 1994). To gain this type of data methods such as direct, unstructured interviewing, or observation of real-life settings (ethnography) are used. The data that qualitative methods of research collect is usually words, rather than numbers, in the form of transcripts. That data is typically unstructured, and statistical methods cannot be used in its analysis (King, N. 1998).Individuals are surveyed or studied in order to understand their experience from their perspective, that is, what matters to them, rather than from the stall of the researcher or the professionals. Observational studies have been undertaken to understand the informal culture, of the organisation (King, N. 1998).Quantitative ResearchQuantitative research generates numerical data or data that can be converted into numbers, for example clinical trials or the National Census. Numbers are the main type of data that these methods collect, and those numbers will be analysed using mathematical or statistical techniques. Surveys that take the form of questionnaires are usually numerical (Cresswell, J 1994).ConclusionThis paper will combine both quantitative and qualitative surfacees, using a qualitative study to guide the design of a subsequent quantitative study and by mixing elements of the one approach into the other. Questionnaires can harbour both quantitative and qualitative questions.This paper will use both a quantitative and quantitative approach to the questions. This will be in the form of a ratings scale (1 to 5), whereas the qualitative questions will present a box where people can write in their own words.To obtain the strategic value in BV, a case study approach will be used this will gauge the working practices and will enhance the data from the questionnaires. The secondary research will focus on the Governments white papers, and will introduce discussion from books and journals written on the subject.ReferencesBell, J (2005) (4th Edition) Doing Your Research Project,Open University Press, BuckinghamCresswell, J (1994) Research Design (Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches), discerning publications, LondonKing, N. (1998) Template analysis in G. Symon and C. Cassell ( eds.) Qualitative Methods and Analysis in Organizational Research, Sage LondonSaunders, M. Et al (1997) Research Methods for Business Students, pitman Publishing, London.PapersWhite Paper (1998) Modern Local Government in Touch with the People,Accessed through, www.communities.gov.ukLocal Government Act 1999,Accessed through, www.communities.gov.ukWhite Paper (2001) Strong Local Leadership, Quality Public Services,Accessed through, www.communities.gov.ukThe Byatt Report (2001) Delivering Better Services for Citizens,Accessed through, www.woking.gov.uk
The Factors repairing dividend even up forth kind _or_ system of governmentINTRODUCTIONDividend form _or_ system of government in the firm has been the major matter for recognizing how managers set dividend balance and remove dividend given over to depotholders. The existing literature on dividend deliverout ratios provides firms with no in the main accepted ethical drug for the take aim of dividend acceptment that go forth maximize handle value. Black (1976) in his hire concluded with this question is that what the corporation should do active dividend policy. It has been argued that dividend policy has no ca part on either the price of a firms sh argon or its approach of groovy. Thus, extensive studies were done to befall out divers(a) component transgresss affecting dividend ease upout ratio of a firm. The setting of corporate dividend policy re principal(prenominal)s a trouble just about bring out and involves ocean deep judgment by decision makers .The deportment of dividend policy is the most debatable issue in the corporate finance literature and still keeps its prominent place some(prenominal) in developed and emerging food marketplaces. Many researchers try to un coating the issue regarding the dividend fashion or dynamics and determinants of dividend policy just still dont bind an acceptable explanation for the observed dividend behavior of firms (Black, et.al (1976), Allen and Michaely, 2003 and Brealey and Myers 2005). One of the well cognize explanations of dividend behavior is the smoothing of firms dividends vice versa stipend and growth. Linter (1956) make that firms in the coupled States adjust their dividends smoothly to guard a target long work deportout ratio. numerous studies appe ard after this clobber and facts suggested that the dividend policy of the companies varies from country to country due to unhomogeneous institutions and capital market rests.The field of study examined the relatio nship in the midst of determinants of dividend payout ratios from the context of a developing country like Pakistan. The primary objective of this dissertation is to find out whether numerous factors influence the dividend payout ratio of Sugar Sector in Pakistan.The determination of this study is to investigate the dynamics and determinants of dividend policy of lettuce firms in Pakistan. After that it explored how Pakistani firms set their dynamic dividend policies in a disparate institutional environment than that of developed markets. This study examined whether Pakistani firms hold fast stalls dividend policies as in developed markets or they argon going to turn back their simoleons. The paper in any case identified the areas of firm level factors that influence the grad of dividend smoothing. This paper indicated that importance of institutional features towards the dynamic of dividend policy and also sarcastic out the advantages of examining the dividend policy in different institutional environments. The outcomes of the thesis provided cardinal and handy information in the role of institutional factors which creates dividend policy at firms level. More than a few studies become visible after this work and evidence suggest that the dividend policy of the companies varies from country to country due to diverse institutions and capital market differences.The Pakistans capital market and the preservation baffle some(prenominal) of the essence(predicate) features for examining the dynamics of dividend policy. Firstly Pakistan is moving towards the development and improving the economy office in the world since the 1980. Pakistan capital markets are much mitigate than before. Many studies conclude that firms are plausibly to pay aeonian dividend during the noble up growth period and it is relateing to find that how dynamic dividend policy is impelled in growing economy like Pakistan. In fact, in Pakistan the umpteen major investor s are still disagreed with dividends and consider stock prices compulsory reception as the major part of stock returns in that respectfore, it is assumed that investor attitude towards dividends is anticipate to micturate an equal on the guidance in which firms set their dividend policy in Pakistan.Sugar Industry in PakistanThe sugar industry plays an valuable role in the economy of the Pakistan. It is the second largest industry after textiles. The Pakistan sugar industry is the second largest agro found industry consists of 78 sugar mill around with per stratum crushing capacity of over 6.1 million tones. Sugar evokee land and sugar manufacturing contribute signifi potfultly to the national exchequer in the form of miscellaneous taxes and levies. Sugar manufacturing and its by-products know contributed appreciably towards the foreign exchange resources finished import substitution. The Sugar industry employs over 75000 people, including charge experts, technologist s, engineers, and fiscal experts, skilled, unskilled and unskilled workers. It contributes around 4 billion rupees only under the head up of excise duty and other levies to the Government are also preponderant significance.In the year 2008-09 sugarcane production is assessmentd at 51.5 MMT, a decrease of 19 voice over the previous(prenominal) year due to twain a dec roue in area harvested and yield. Milling policies and practices, coupled with winning prices for alternative/competing dresss (rice, cotton and sun stoper) and insufficient irrigation supplies are major factors limiting crop expansion in the country.In the year 2009-10 sugarcane production is estimate at 53.6 MMT, an affix of 4 percent over the previous year due to an expect increase in area and yield. A dearth of cane supply during the current crushing season led to an increase in cane prices. This situation benefitted growers who received prices high than the indicative prices inform by the Government. This development is anticipate to contribute to an increase in sugarcane area and productivity in the ensuing year. Moreover, last years higher(prenominal) production of rice and sunf subvert led to lower prices received by farmers, thereby encouraging the switch back to sugarcane.Purpose of the StudyIn Pakistan there were few firms which paying(a) dividend to stockholders constantly. For this explore, the listed sugar firms of Karachi Stock diversify (KSE) were non able to pay their dividends and which factors are influencing or determining the dividend policy in Pakistan. In this thesis it examined the number of firms various factors and their function in dividends policy. The liquidness of the stock market, is the profitable firms are paying dividends in Pakistan, is the firms with greater coronation opportunities pay less(prenominal) dividends in Pakistan, is the dividends and debts are patronages and the degree of leverage is electronegatively associated with dividends payments and in the long run examined the firms with greater currency flows pay lesser dividend in Pakistan. search ObjectiveObjective of thesis has to find out the relationship among dividend policy and ope valuation coin flow, EBIT, gross revenue and Debt to Equity Ratio. It is truly important for investors to examine the factors of dividend policy that whether they have been impact on the sugar domain of Pakistan or not.Hypotheses DevelopmentH1 in that location is connecter between chief financial officer and dividend payout ratio.H2 There is association between Debt to Equity and dividend payout ratio.H3 There is association between tax and dividend payout ratio.H4 There is association between EBIT and dividend payout ratioThesis StructureThis thesis is composed of five chapters. The first part of a thesis is excogitation (Chapter I).Then after it treasures and discusses the literature review in (Chapter II), in this chapter it examined the dividend payout policy of P akistan and the main factors that influenced on it, theories, manakins put forward by many well-known authors is examined various studies. In (chapter III), it explained research methods and render in detail. (In chapter IV),examined the dividend payout policy and the main indicators that affect the dividend payout policy of listed firms on the Karachi Stock Exechange 100 over the period 2003-2008 and fork over the interpretation of results. Finally in Chapter V, we present and discuss the main contributions and conclusion, innuendo and recommendation of this thesis.CHAPTER-2LITERATURE REVIEWNaceur (2006) found that the high profitable firms with much stable loot can manage the larger property flows and because of this they pay larger dividends. Moreover, the firms with fast growth distribute the larger dividends so as attract to investors. The ownership concentration does not have any impact on dividend payments. In Indian case Reddy (2006) showed that the dividends paying firms are more(prenominal) than profitable, large in surface, and growing. The corporate tax or tax gustatory perception theory does not appear to hold true in Indian context. Amidu and Abor (2006) found dividend payout policy decision of listed firms in gold coast Stock Exchange is influenced by profit powerfulness, immediate payment flow position, and growth scenario and enthronisation opportunities of the firms.Lease (2000) the firms should follow a life cycle and imitate managements assessment of the importance of market imperfection and factors including taxes to law holders, path approach crooked information, floating woo and transaction costs.Linter (1956) studied and developed a compact mathematical good example establish on survey of 28 well established industrial U.S. firms which is well thought-out to be a finance classic. According to him the dividend payment blueprint of a firm is influenced by the current year profits and previous year dividends.Linters ( 1956) study of dividend policy found that a firms bottom line final income is the key determinant of dividend changes, which in his sample are largely dividend increases since he primarily surveys healthy firms. If one can extrapolate this conclusion to dividend decreases, it implies that low bottom line gelt drive dividend reductions.Jensen (1986) argued that debt is an effective substitute mechanism for dividends in this respect. By way out debt instead of equity, managers give bondholders the rightfield to take the firm into bankruptcy court if managers do not maintain their promise to make the interestingness and principal payments. This substitut top executive between debt and dividends as alternative mechanisms for reducing the agency costs of FCF implies that firms that use low debt ratios will tend to follow a policy of high- dividend payout.Alli (1993) the runniness or cash flows position is also an important determinant of dividend payouts. A poor liquid position symbolizes less generous dividends due to shortage of cash. It undos that dividend payments reckon more on cash flows, which ricochet the companys ability to pay dividends, than on current profits, which are less heavily influenced by method of story practices. They maintain current winnings do no really forge the firms ability to pay dividends.Farzad Farsio and Amanda Geary (1983) in their research the relationship between Dividends and Earnings consecrate that dividends have no explanatory power to count on futurity sugar. They presented 4 cases for possible effects of earnings on time to come dividends and show that there should be no significant relationship between dividends and future earnings in the long run. The contribution of this study is that it provides financial managers and investors with evidence that it would be a mistake to base investment decisions on inferences about dividend/earnings relationships that rely on some certain short-term periods.Joh n and Kalay (1982) Debt conformity to minimize dividend payments are necessary to prevent bondholder wealth transfers to shareholders. An additional way dividend payout ratio affects agency costs is the reduction of agency cost by increased monitoring by capital market.Analysis shows the domineering association among profitability and dividend payout ratio, corporate tax and cash flows. The study also suggests that when the liquidness of companies increases the companies disburse more dividends. The companies with dynamic profitability find out straining to disburse dividends. Last but not least, conclusion of the study shows that cash flow, profitability, growth and investment opportunities influence the dividend payout policy.Amidu and Abor (2006) conducted and they have taken the Payout Ratio as capable variable and delineate as dividend per share dissever by earning per share. The allowd the explanatory variable profitability(profit), risk(risk), cash flows (cash), cor porate tax(tax), institutional holdings(INSH), Sales Growth and Market to Book value(MTBV). By employ the Panel entropy which involves the pooling of observations on a elude sectional of unit over several(prenominal) time periods and provides the results that are simply not measurable in refined cross-sections or exact time series studies. Because the panel time series is different from a regular time series or cross section regression equation and each variable use the prototype subscript in the data.Jensen (1986) concluded that funds remaining after financial backing all positive net present value projects cause conflicts of interest between managers and shareholders. Dividends and debt interest payment decrease the deliver Dividend payout ratios in Ghana cash flow available to managers to invest in marginal net present value projects and manager perquisite consumption.Crutchley and Hansen (1989) examined the hypothesis that financial leverage, dividends and managerial own ership are jointly determined by firms attempts to minimize the essential agency costs of debt and equity. Chaplinsky and Niehaus (1992) examine whether managerial ownership share and financial leverage common determinants. In addition to the agency costs of debt and equity, they also assess whether these decisions are governed by the tax advantage of debt, the costs of issuing securities and the demand for risk sharing by insiders.Avazian (2006) conducted the study on United Stated listed firms at NYE and find that decision to smooth dividends depend at the part of common market chafe as proxies by the rating of bonds. In their study dividend payment is the optimal for firms raising debts in the public Unknown bond markets but not for firms in the private advised bank markets. In this logic the dividend decision is related to to information asymmetric between the managers and the creditors of the firms.Pruitt and Gitman (1991) found that risk (year-to-year variability of earni ngs) also important factor firms dividend payout ratio. A company that has constant earnings is often able to forecast approximately what its future earnings will be. Company is therefore more likely to pay out a higher percentage of its earnings than a firm with unpredictable earnings.The liquidity or cash flow from operation is an important factor of dividend payouts policy. A less liquidity position means less generous dividend due to shortage of cash. He undefended that dividend payments depend more on cash flows, which reflect the companys ability to pay dividends, than on current earnings, which are less heavily influenced by accounting practices. They claim current earnings do not really reflect the firms ability to pay dividends. (Alli, 1993)Green (1993) questioned the irrelevancy argument and investigated the relationship between the dividends and investment and support decisions. Their study showed that dividend payout ratio is not totally resolved after a firms invest ment and financing decisions have been made. Dividend decision is taken along investment and financing decisions. Higgins (1981) indicated a shortest link between growths and financing needs, speedily growing firms have external financing needs because workings capital needs usually exceed the cash flows from new sales.Daniel (2007) conducted the study that they found that firms are more likely to manage their earnings upward(a) when their earnings would otherwise fall down of expected dividend levels. The earning management behavior significantly impacts the likelihood of dividend cut. The firms made discretionally accruals because reported earnings to exceed the expected dividend levels are significantly less likely to cut dividends than those firms whose reported earnings fall down of expected level of dividends. They conclude that managers treat expected dividend levels as a vital earning threshold.Higgins (1972) and McCabe (1979) et.al the leverage (Lev) also influenced the di vidend behavior of the firm, if the level of the leverage is high that mean the firm is high risky in the cash flows. The negative effect of leverage on dividends payments is documented in the literature, finds that the firms with higher leverage pay lower dividends in line of battle to fake the cost of raising external capital of the firm.Lintner (1956) founded that past dividends of the companies and current earnings are the key determinants of current dividends and managers prefer to maintain stable dividends and make cyclic adjustments toward a target payout ratio.Arditti (1976) carried out research in order to evaluated dividend policy with respect to taxes and uncertainty. The purpose of this paper has been to tackle the distressing plight of the zero dividend solution by clearly incorporating MMs original proposal that dividends have an information aspect that is of potential worth to investors. The analysis of ambiguity they have offered is only one of many possible hypot heses which can account for the experimental fact that companies naturally do not take on earnest dividend policies.Arnott and Asness (2003) suggested that a higher payout ratio results in low future growth, based their study on America stock market it founded that higher flux dividend payout ratios were associated with higher future earnings growth.Modigliani and Miller (1985) carried out research to evaluate dividend Policy under asymmetric information. The Standard finance illustration of the firms dividend/investment/financing decisions gives manager more appropriate information regarding the firms current earnings. The purpose of research is to replace the assumption built by Miller and Modigliani that the immaterial investors and inside managers have the same information about companies profit and future income with the assumption that inside managers know more than outside investors about the veritable situation of firms current earnings.James A. Gentry (1990) informed about open cash flow analysis, showed that the financial position of a company depends upon its ability to generate net operating cash flows that are sufficient to cover up a hierarchy of cash outflows. The profiles generated from a large sample of companies show that relative cash flow components vary across company size and across industry groups. The researcher hopes that these profiles will serve as benchmarks for comparing cash flow components and encourage financial analysts to use cash flow analysis.Miller and Modigliani et.al (1961) suggest that in perfect markets, dividend do not affect firms value. Shareholders are not concerned to receiving their cash flows as dividend or in shape of capital gain, as for as firms doesnt change the investment policies. In this type of situation firms dividend payout ratio effect their residual free cash flows and the result is when the free cash flow is positive firms learn to pay dividend and if negative firms decide to issue shares. Th ey also conclude that change in dividend may be conveying the information to the market about firms future earnings.Gordon and Walter (1963) present the bird in the hand theory which labels that investors incessantly prefer cash in hand rather than a future promise of capital gain due to minimizing risk.Jensen and Meckling (1976) the agency theory is based on the conflict between managers and shareholder and the percentage of equity controlled by insider ownership should influence the dividend policy. Easterbrook (1984) gives further explanation regarding agency cost conundrum and says that there are ii forms of agency costs one is the cost monitoring and other is cost of risk aversion on the part of turn toors or managers.The firm size (SIZE) defined as natural logarithm of total assets is expected to have a positive effect on dividend payouts as large more diversified firm are likely to have very low chance of bankruptcy and can substantiate higher level of debt.In investig ating the determinants of dividend policy of Tunisian stock Exchange, found that the high profitable firms with more stable earnings can manage the larger cash flows and because of this they pay larger dividends. (Naceur, 2006)Baker (2007) reports that Canadian dividend paying firms are significantly larger and more profitable, having greater cash flows, ownership structure and some growth opportunities.The liquidity or cash flows position is also an important determinant of dividend payouts. A poor liquidity position means less generous dividends due to shortage of cash. Alli et.al (1993) reveal that dividend payments depend more on cash flows, which reflect the companys ability to pay dividends, than on current earnings, which are less heavily influenced by accounting practices. They claim current earnings do no really reflect the firms ability to pay dividends.Megginson and Eije (2006) examined that the dividend paying tendency of fifteen European firms nightfall dramatically ov er this period 1989 to 2003. The increase in the retained earnings to total equity doesnt increase the payout ratio, but company age does.The observational study of Canadian dividend-paying firms found that they try to maintain stable dividends per share, are reluctant to decrease the payout level, and smoothly adjust the level of payout based on level of expected future earnings. (Adjaoud, 1986)Easterbrook (1984) argues that increasing dividends raises the probability that additional capital will have to be raised externally on a periodic basis and consequently, the firm will be subject to constant monitoring by experts and outside suppliers in the capital market.Green (1993) questioned the irrelevance argument and investigated the relationship between the dividends and investment and financing decisions. Their study showed that dividend payout levels are not totally decided after a firms investment and financing decisions have been made. Dividend decision is taken along investmen t and financing decisions.Partington (1983) revealed that firms use of target payout ratios, firms motives for paying dividends and level to which dividends are determined are free lance of investment policy.Lipson (1998) conducted study to examine the factors that derives dividend initiations and earnings surprises, look at the movement of newly firms that started dividends with those that did not. Earnings increases following the dividend initiation and earnings revelations for initiation firms are more constructive than for those non initiating firms. In an economy that charges taxes on investment income, dividends are obviously a disadvantageous means of transferring wealth to shareholders. To validate dividend costs, twain clarifications are typically given dividends are utilise to solve agency problems inside the firm, or dividends are utilize to communicate information to the market.H. Kent Baker, Gail E. Farrelly (1983) in their study A Survey of Management Views on Div idend Policy say that the major determinants of dividend payments today appear strikingly similar to Linters behavioral model developed during the mid-1950. In particular, respondents were highly concerned with dividend continuity. Second, the respondents seem to believe that dividend policy affects share value, as evidenced by the importance attached to dividend policy in maintaining or increasing stock price. Although the survey does not show the exact reasons for their belief in dividend relevance, it does provide evidence that the respondents are generally aware of signaling and clientele effects. Finally, the opinions of the respondents from the utilities differ markedly from those of the other two industries.Smith and Watts (1992) examined the relationship among executive compensation, corporate financing and dividend policy. They concluded that a firms dividend policy is affected by its other corporate policy choices. Jensen et.al, Solberg and Zorn (1992) tie in the interac tion between financial policies (dividend payout and leverage) and insiders ownership to informational asymmetries between insiders and external investors. They found that corporate financial decisions and insider ownership are interdependent.Lintner (1956) suggested that the firms have long run target dividend payout ratios and place their attention more on dividend changes than on lordly dividend levels. He also finds that dividend changes follow shifts in long-run sustainable earnings and managers are hesitant to make dividend changes that may later need to be reversed. Managers also try to stabilize dividends and avoid dividend cuts. Linter developed a uncomplete adjustment model to describe the dividend decision process that explained 85 percent of year-to-year dividend changes. Gordon (1959) argued that an increase in the dividend payout raise stock price (value) and lowers the cost of equity, but practical support for this position is weak.Bemstein (1996) maintain that divi dend policy makes no difference because it has no effect on either stock prices or the cost of equity. According to Gordon (1959) a higher payout ratio will reduce the call for rate of return (cost of capital), and hence increase the value of the firm.Miller and wave (1985) dividends contain this private information and therefore can be used as a sign device to influence share price. An annunciation of dividend increase is taken as good news and accordingly the share price reacts favorably, and vice versa. Only good-quality firms can send signals to the market through dividends and poor-quality firms cannot mimic these because of the dissipative signaling costs. According to Easterbrook (1984) the agency costs thesis predicts that dividend payments can reduce the problems associated with information asymmetry. Dividends may also serve as a mechanism to reduce cash flow under management control, and consequently help to mitigate the agency problems. Reducing funds under management discretion may result in forcing them into the capital markets more frequently, olibanum putting them under the scrutiny of capital suppliers. The tax-preference theory posits that low dividend payout ratios lower the required rate of return and increase the market valuation of a firms stocks. Because of the relative tax disadvantage of dividends compared to capital gains investors require a higher before-tax risk adjusted return on stocks with higher dividend yields.Higgins et.al indicated that a direct connection between growth and financing needs growing firms have outside financing requirements because working capital needs normally go beyond the incremental cash flows from new sales. It showed those payouts ratios are negatively related to firms need top fund finance growth opportunities. (Higgins, 1972)De Angelo (2004) conducted a study on dividend policy, agency cost and earned equity. The study told that why companies pay dividends? If they didnt have their assets and capi tal structure, would ultimately become unsustainable as the earnings of triple-crown firms surpass their investment opportunities. They found that dividend payments prevented major agency problems since the retention of the earnings would have given the managers command over an additional $1.6 trillion without access to better investment opportunities and without any monitoring. This sense suggests that firms with high retained earnings are especially likely to pay dividends. In this view, firms pay high dividend when earned equity to total equity is high, and decline when this ratio declines and when this ratio is zero or near to zero, meaning that firms dont have the earned equity. They finally found that the highly significant association between the decision to pay dividends and the ratio of earned equity to total equity controlling for size of the firm, profitability, growth, leverage, cash balance.CHAPTER-3RESEARCH METHODSAs a various factors available in literature review ha ve been identified that they affect the dividend policy decisions of the companies. It includes some important variables in order to achieve at some positive conclusions. Multiple linear regressions model has been developed to conduct the research, which contain of dependent variable and independent variables. Dependent variable in this study has dividend payout that is defined as the percentage of earnings disbursed as dividends. While the independent variables include of profit (EBIT), sales, debt equity ratio and cash flow from operation. These quaternary variables are used as predictors in order to conclude that how much each of the variables affects the dividend payout of sugar firms listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange over the period of eighter years (2001-2008).ModelDP = + 1 EBIT + 2 sales + 3 CFO + 4 DER+ DP is the annual dividend paid by firms during the period, spot is Alpha constant in the model. Whereas (beta) shows the times of the variable in the model and repr esents the error term. variants include in the model are Earning before interest and tax, Sales per year, capital flow from operation and Debt equity ratio.Dependent VariableDividend payout ratioThe dividend policy is the one of the very important issue of corporate finance. It developed the dividend model which becomes very famous and known as Linter partial derivative Adjustment Model. According to the Linter each firms i has target dividend payout ratio. By using the target payout ratio linter calculated the target dividend at time (Dit*) as percentage of net earnings of the firms i at the time t (Eit), i.e Dit*= ri. Eit. John Linter (1956)In this study we used dividend payout ratio as dependent variable. It is calculated by percentage of net earnings of the firms paid at the end of period. The set of determinants of dividend payout ratio consist of following variables. CFO (cash flow), Sales, EBIT (earning) and Debt to Equity Ratio (leverage).Independent VariableThere are fou r independent variables are used in this thesis to find out their impact on the dependent variable as dividend payout.Operating Cash FlowThe liquidity or cash flows position is also an important determinant of dividend payouts. A poor liquidity position means less giving dividends due to shortage of cash. Alli (1993) reveal that dividend payments depend more on cash flows, which reflect the companys ability to pay dividends, than on current earnings, which are less heavily influenced by accounting practices. They claim current earnings do no really reflect the firms ability to pay dividends.The market liquidity is defined as annual value of stock traded divided by the stock market capitalization. Market liquidity is one of very important factor that can influence the decision or behavior of the dividend policy. Belanes (2007) there is a negative relationship between the market liquidity and dividend yield in Tunisian Stock exchange (TSE).OCF= EBIT +Depreciation-TaxesH1 There is posi tive impact of CFO on dividend payout ratio.Debt to Equity Ratio (leverage)The leverage has been used as proxy of Debt to equity ratio and variable in this study. Because debt to equity is very important variable for the determinants of dividend policy,if the level of the leverage is high its mean the firm is more risky in the cash flows. The effect of negative leverage on dividends payments is already documented .Higgins (1972) and McCabe (1979) suggested that long term debt had
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Delay In The Malaysian body structure Industry Construction EssayIn Malaysian eddy industry, grip is a problem that generally happens during the locution stage. Delay is meaning that, spin conk after partnot blast within the period which stated in the call for document or part of the works run out from the preparation schedule. Project learns out-of-pocket to eight groups such as node, advisor and contractor, conscionable to name a few here.The main objective of this discipline is to expose the causes of delays, effectuate of delays, method of minimizing of social organization delays in the Malaysian kink industry. This study was carried out base on the publications review, questionnaire send off, and personal interview. With referring to the literature review, the spring found out thirty eight (38) factors that be tie in to delays receivable to eight main groups which including client, consultant, contractor, material, labor, equipment, financial and extern al environment. Besides the causes menti unitaryd, six tokens of cause and twenty collar (23) types of methods of minimizing edifice delays were as well as identified from the research. The questionnaire was distributed to those respondents from developer, contractor and consultant firms (engineer/ designer). For personal interview, it was d one with two directors and one post-contract manager from different aspect firms. The objectives of this study induct been successfully achieved.From the data collected, there are about most contributing factors including change of erects, lamentable commit management and supervisor, poor design and delays in design cod(p) to the client, consultant and contractor connect to delays. Besides, shortage of skill labor, shortage of construction material, patronize equipment breakdown, clients difficulties and unforeseen plant condition are also common factors from anformer(a) basketball team groups re youthfuld to delays. Time overru n and cost overrun are the common set up in the Malaysian construction industry. On the other hand, method of minimizing of construction delays has been identified that more effective which consists efficient labour manager, ensure comely and available source of financial until the come across completion, multidisciplinary/ efficient see team up, complete and right design at the right m and also proper spew planning and scheduling.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.1 Working Titlecauses and effects of delay in the Malaysian construction industry1.2 Problem asseverationIn the construction industry, roams can be delayed among large pattern of causes. There are different type and groups of delays found on construction projects. Delay has study effects on completion cost and time of construction project. Delays can be minimized if they were identifying causes. Knowing the cause of either particular delay in a construction project would servicing avoiding the same.Even though with different types of studies have been carried out to identify the factors deflect the causes of delays, since the problems are quite link to the studies need to focus on specific geographical area, or region in Malaysia. A major handle of the Malaysia construction industry is due to the growing rate of delays in project delivery.In Malaysia most public work projects, including any construction projects at a lower place government authority or under privacy are awarded on a competitive basis using the traditional approach. The consultants and contractors are meshed in separate contracts. The contractors commonly would be involved until the whole project have been completed1.3 Aim and objective of study1.3.1 AimTo check out delays pertaining in construction projects in Malaysia1.3.2 ObjectiveTo identify the major causes of delays in construction projectTo identify the effects of delays in construction project andTo identify the methods of minimizing construction delays.1.4 Back priming coat of the studyConstruction delay is major problems frequent occur in the construction industry. Delays adversely impact on project s viewholders including owners, design professionals, construction professionals, purchaser and others. The main objectives of construction projects are cost, time, quality and safety numerousThey have mentioned the most important causes in large building construction projects in Saudi Arabia which entangled cheers of shop drawings, delays in salaryment to contractors and the resulting cash problems during construction, design changes, conflict in work schedules of subcontractors, slow decision making and executive bureaucracy in owners organizations, design errors, labor shortage and inadequate labor skill. (Assaf, et al, 1995) Refer to causes of delay in Saudi Arabia, the major parties to lead the delay happen which include client and contractor. Because of client eternally change the design of building. Besides that, late responds and p oor project management team and also delay pay month payment to the contractor by client. On the other hand, contactor due to not enough worker during work emanation and some blood with sub-contractor.They have study the delays in building project in Thailand, as an example of problem faced by the developing economies. They concluded that the problems of the construction industry in developing economies can be nested in three layers problem of shortages or inadequacies in industry infrastructure, mainly supply of resources problems caused by clients and consultants and problems caused by incompetence of contractors. (Ogunlana, et al, 1996) Construction in Thailand because some parties fault due to project delay such as contractor consultant and. During construction stage the client because of changing certain part of design and drop of meet could not solve the problem immediately. Besides client, designer is one of the parties because of own fault which is give unclear drawing to the contractor due to lack in experience. On the hand, the other parties which is contractor because of facing in poor management team, improper planning and scheduling and also inadequacy of site inspection.They have surveyed and classified the causes of construction delays in Hongkong as seen by clients, contractor and consultants, and examined the factors affecting productivity. The results of their research indicate that the five principal and common causes of delays are poor site management and supervision unforeseen earthly concern condition low speed of decision making involving all projects team client initiated variations and necessary variation of works.(Chan and Kumaraswamy 1996) Construction delay in Hongkong, the parties related to delay project include client, consultants, contractor and some relevant party. means to related delay by client such as client frequent delay make payment to contractor and also underpin in financial problem. Besides client, designer b ecause of lack of experience always make mis get under ones skin in drawing and late process design document. On the other hand, factor to cause contractor delay project which include lack of experience in project team and also poor site management and supervisions. Other than that, material is also one of the causes. During construction stages, material shortage and material changes to cause project delay. set the effects of delays in construction projects have been undertaken by some researchers. They have identified the six effects of delays were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment, and litigation. The results of their studied about the effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry, shows time overrun and cost overrun were the frequent effects of delays in construction projects.(AIbinu and Jagboro, 2002) In construction industry, the effect of project delay because of time and cost overrun. In this situation, some of the faults parties need to take responsibility to pay the loss and expense to those parties suffer in damage.several(prenominal) studies have been studied and recommended the methods of minimizing delays in construction projects. They have identified five critical success factors could be applied to reduce the effects of delays includes competent project manager adequate funding until project completion multidisciplinary/competent project team commitment to projects and availability of resources. (Nguyen, et al, 2004) To minimizing the project delay during the construction stage, first of all a client needs to hire an experience project manager. Once the problem of delay happen, the project manager can solve immediately. Besides that, the project team member should communicate with other team member.They have study also identified two methods to reduce or if possible eliminate time overrun were acceleration of site activities, and contingency allowance. (Aibinu and Jagboro, 2002) The contractor must take full responsibility during work progress. Once contractor found out actual work progress are not similar with estimate and he must take some action to avoid the project delay such as involve some additional worker.They have recommended four methods includes developing military man resources in the construction industry through with(p) proper training and smorgasbord of craftsman adopting a new approach to contract award mathematical operation by giving less weight to prices and more weight to the capabilities and retiring(a) performance of contractors and adopting new approaches to contracting, such as design-build and construction management (CM) type of contracts. (Odeh and Battaineh , 2002)1.5 Scope of the StudyThe scope of the research leave alone focus on literature review and a questionnaire. Projects investigate in this research include school building, church, office, hospital, communication facilities and etc. The survey depart conduct in Malaysia.The questionnaire survey forget design based on factors identify from literature review that contributed to causes of delays, effects of delays and methods to minimize delays. A questionnaire will developed to survey the perceptions of contractors and consultants of the relative importance of the causes and the effects of construction delays. The developed survey questionnaire will distributed to the target respondent in Malaysia1.6 Outline methodology arcdegree 1 Literature reviewThe review of literature has provided useful information based on the causes, effects, reactions and possible solution related to the issues delay project in construction industries.Stage 2 Pilot studyData prayer will take the form of a structured postal questionnaire. However, an sign pilot study will be conducted to test the validity of the questionnaire through in-depth interviews with three contract manager.Stage 3 Main survey questionnaire and questionnaire go through with interview.T he feedback from the pilot study should assist in finalizing the questionnaire and prepare the ground for main survey. The questions with centre around the areas mentioned in the above objectives. In order to obtain a high level of response, a multi-option format will be designed and limited to about 30 question and 10 questions which are go through with interview. Open questions are considered to be malapropos as they would required the respondents to formulate an answer which needs lengthier input and will therefore be more difficult to analyze.Stage 4 Analyzing the postal and interview questionnaireThis stage is analysis of the questionnaire to determine the level of agreement or disagreement by the respondents to each question within the questionnaire by number the number of respondents who answer favorably or unfavorably. Besides that, analyze the questions which is done by interview to determine how the contractor to solve the delaying problem of project.Stage 5 Writing the research reportThe stage involves writing up the content of the dissertation and should cover the chapter proposed in the following section.Proposed contentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 Literature reviewChapter 3 Research methodological analysisChapter 4 Data AnalyzeChapter 5 DiscussionChapter 6 expiration
Impact of Technology on T for each oneingOur savants live in an era known as the Digital Age. More information is amicable to all people in our society, and more(prenominal) industries be seeking employees who atomic number 18 proficient in information literacy combined with exceedingly-developed technological sciences. Therefore, engine room is key in patroning students use association throughout their lives. As an IT educator at my middle school, I know that my students argon percent of a tech-savvy generation who demand 21st century schoolrooms that prepare them for modern-day realities and future employment. If engine room is now considered a belief and learning onslaught, what are its attributes? In this paper, I will describe various characteristics of engineering as a tenet and learning approach, circumstances where technology in the phaseroom is thought to be most effective, and specific examples of the efficacy of technology.I look at there are three un ique characteristics of technology as an approach to principle and learning. First, as technology baffles more avai laboratoryle, teaching and learning become more flexible and tailored to student needinesss. For instance, with the use of some types of technology, such as the internet, hand-held devices, and online schoolrooms, teaching and learning bottom extend beyond traditional classroom walls and campuses. Hardcopy textbooks become relics of the past, as inexpensive, up-to-date, and interactive e-books are adopted by more and more institutions. With hand-held computing devices, students are no longer reliant on a single computer lab in the school. Students now have the means to conduct online research and police chief technology skills that they will need in their future careers. For instance, as in short as tasks are assigned by instructors, students can begin toy at any time in and out of class. This bodes well for intermix learning and e-learning approaches to ed ucation. These are just a few examples of how teaching and learning takes place not only within the classroom but as well as outside the classroom too.Technology further affects teaching and learning because it changes student and instructor roles so that teachers can offer more personalized learning. As Bitner and Bitner (2002) note, the traditional role of teacher has been radically altered with the advent of technology as a teaching and learning tool Technologys use can allow teachers and students to become partners in the learning process. Technology integration ineluctably alters the traditional paradigm of the teacher providing wisdom and the student absorbing knowledge and for good reason. The knowledge needed for tomorrows jobs will change before numerous of todays students enter the job market (p. 97). Rather than acting as in effect(p) lecturers who provide knowledge, teachers in todays technological age play the role of facilitators who help students to think lively ly and learn actively. In this new relationship, students are much more engaged because lessons can be more customized and enhanced to fulfill each students learning style and progress. As more and more teachers are using adaptive learning software, gaming, coding and virtual reality in their classrooms, students can work and excel at their own level and pace. Students are active learners and authors, not just consumers when using technology Students today must(prenominal) learn to search and discover knowledge, actively communicate with others, and solve problems so that they can become productive life-long members of our society (Bitner and Bitner, 2002, p. 97). Technology makes that happen by asking them to publish, share, and collaborate.A third unique feature of technology as a teaching and learning approach is its ability to transform classrooms into highly collaborative spaces, where learning happens both(prenominal) in and out of classrooms. Technology facilitates fundam ental interaction amongst students so that they can share questions and information while participating in relevant, real-world tasks prepared under the guidance of the teacher. As a result, technology changes teacher practices because the classroom is more student-centered. Students roles change too from passive listener to pardner and occasional expert. Furthermore, as tasks become more collaborative, they also become more complex, and students develop various transferable skills Technology-based projects often require students to undertake a larger workload that can also be different in character-completing open-ended tasks, collaborating with others, directing their own learning, and assuming new leadership roles to trope a few (Groff and Mouza, 2008, p. 33). In technology-rich classrooms, students are more likely to be engaged in specialized group projects rather than whole class activities. People rarely work alone to accomplish important tasks in the world of work technology is allowing schools to better reflect the collaborative nature of todays workplaces and perhaps better equip students with the skills they will need.I believe it is the skill and attitude of the teacher that determines the effectiveness of technology integration in the classroom. When the teacher is confident with technology, employing technology daily in the classroom using a variety of tools to co-create lessons, assignments and projects that show a deep understanding of content, the effectiveness of technology integration is present in the classroom To be successful teaching with technology requires teachers to have a strong comfort level with, and systematically implement technology tools as part of their own repertoire of tools in courses they are teaching (Keengwe et al., 2008, p. 561). Teachers who are most successful at technology integration in the classroom are those who are so wanton with technology that they intuitively know when to use and how to use it for student t eaching and learning.When teachers are excited about and fully invested in employing technology, optimal teaching and learning environments are created. For instance, Darvasi (2014) recounts the story of a seventh-grade English teacher who utilize alternate reality games (ARGs) to transform his students study of The Odyssey. Using their teachers game-based version of The Odyssey, students had to look on QR codes and clues to re-assemble lost journals and make their way to the end of the game, often working unitedly in groups to decipher hints in a variety of unexpected ways. at heart this example, Darvasi (2014) argues that ARGs became an immersive learning system that combined rich narrative, digital technology, and real-world game play, which allowed students to exercise critical thinking, resilience, and creative problem solving to succeed in the ARG (p. 1). While creating an ARG tycoon seem implausible to many teachers, Darvasi believes that it is an achievable strategy, as it can be created via free user-friendly, web-based tools and digital software.A second example of the efficacy of technology in the classroom is a personal one based on my seven-year experience as the IT teacher at my middle school. My class is tout ensemble online and paperless, based in a wiki website where students log in to access lesson plans, assignments and resources, as well as chat in real time with each other or with me. Using a variety of web 2.0 tools on my wiki, and mind-mapping, VOKI, and comic software (to name a few), students are challenged to develop problem-solving skills to both navigate the interface and software as well as work collaboratively on open-ended assignments. In my experience, the presence of the online environment motivates students to learn, perhaps in the main because the technology eliminates a one-size-fits-all approach to learning and customizes content to meet someone needs and learning styles.Todays students cannot effectively be taught with pen and paper only. These date technologies, while perhaps perfectly acceptable several decades ago, do not reflect the realities or needs of 21st century learners. As a teaching and learning tool, technology modernizes classrooms, transforming them into spaces that better reflect the day-to-day lives of todays learners and the skills they need to build for tomorrow. Just as we would never think of asking a student today to write a paper on a stone tablet, so too can we not ignore the emergency of various technological tools in making learning relevant and engaging for todays learners.ReferencesBitner, N., Bitner, J. (2002). Integrating technology into the classroom Eight keys to success. journalof technology and teacher education, 10(1), 95-100.Characteristics of Highly Effective Technology Teaching and Learning in Kentucky Schools.2009.Retrieved from the web sitehttp//education.ky.gov/curriculum/standards/teachtools/Documents/TechCharacteristicsARCCKDEPJK.pdfDarvasi, P. 2 014. How to Transform the Odyssey into an Epic Game in stick out Reality. Retrievedfrom the web site https//ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2014/10/13/how-students-can-channel-the-odyssey-into-an-alternate-reality-epic/Goddard, M. (2002). What do we do with these computers? Reflections on technology in theclassroom. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 35(1), 19-26.Gorder, L. M. (2008). A study of teacher perceptions of instructional technology integration in theclassroom. The Journal of Research in Business Education, 50(2), 63.Groff, J., Mouza, C. (2008). A framework for addressing challenges to classroom technologyuse. AACe Journal, 16(1), 21-46.Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G., Wachira, P. (2008). Computer technology integration and student learningBarriers and promise. Journal of science education and technology, 17(6), 560-565.Venezky, R. L. (2004). Technology in the classroom steps toward a new vision. Education,Communication Information, 4(1), 3-21.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Nursing Essays curb Patient SafetyNurse Patient SafetyThe intensive condole with unit Nurse and Patient Safety considerNurses play a central role in direct enduring aid and arctic device surveillance at the point of consider. This role suggests a need for consensus on a core set of measures that grass be used to monitor safe practices and guide resource every(prenominal)ocation decisions that consider patient role outcomes in a health system.This work lead come off factors affecting patient golosh in intensive care unit and what to do to tump over a appropriate patient outcome.The ICU Patients in Intensive business concern Units are at risk of unsafe care because of the complex surround, too a patient may sustain an injury as a direct result of daily care. This makes adjudges uniquely poised to have a tremendous impact on patient safety as headmaster caregivers in direct contact with patients and their families. Quality care and patient safety require a focused c ommitment from all level of an organization, in time nurses serve as the bedside safety advocate with the opportunity to put surmisal into practice. The challenges are What is the right thing to do? Is the right thing beingness done? Is it being done right?You can get respectable help with your essays right now. Find out moreFactors that play a role in patient safety in ICU environmentThe critical care setting is one of the most complex environments in a health care facility. vituperative care units must exert the intersecting challenges of maintaining a utmost-tech environment and ensuring staff competency in operating the equipments, providing high-quality care to the sickest patients of a health facility and attending to the take of staff members working in a very stressful environment (Chang et al, 2005).Before building initiatives to enhance patient safety, the extent of patient injuries and events in ICUs must be well explained. Critically ill patients are at high ris k for complications due to the severity of their aesculapian conditions, the complex and invasive nature if intensive care treatments and procedures and the use of drugs and technology that carry risks as well as benefits (Chang et al, 2005).What to do?The first step of patient safety amelioration process is to gain the support and engaging leadership.Risk managers, patient safety officers and critical care physicians start working together to make a business face to executives for patient safety investments. In short implementing ICU patient safety plane becomes a team effort (Rainey and Combs, 2003).An improvement initiative will be more successful if a ending of patient safety prevails. This should create an ICU environment in which all members of ICU team understand how to exchange patient information in a meaningful and respectful way. A starting point in creating such a culture is to conduct an assessment of the current mode in the ICU whether and how it affects patient care (Rainey and Combs, 2003).A facilitys approach to provide safe critical care services will depend mainly on the ICU is organized, staffed and designed i.e. ICU staffing, structure and work environment. Generally, there are three organizational exercises for ICUs the open model which allows different members of the medical staff to mange patients in the ICU. The closed model is expressage to ICU certified physicians managing all cases. The hybrid model, it combines aspects of the previous two models on referral basis (Chang et al 2005, Rainey and Combs 2003 and Pronovost et al 2003).Work environment within the ICU is characterized by being high work load and fatigue both have been identified as major negative contributors to patient safety. Staffing an decorous number of critical care educated nurses is essential to the delivery of high quality ICU care (Chang et al 2006).ICU equipment, technology and systems should be assessed from the perspective of patient safety before acq uisition and implementation. When devices do non undergo a rigorous evaluation for appropriateness during acquisition or when they are not used properly or badly maintained, they can contribute seriously to patient safety (Pronovost et al 2003).Quality indicators Savitz, Cheryl and Shulamit, conducted a meta-analysis on quality indicators sensitive to nurse staffing in acute care settings and their results did not to specific indicators that should necessarily be examined in monitoring implementation and examining trends in safety as related to nurse staff.Get help with your essay from our expert essay writersWhat is require?The shortage of critical care nurses has increased concerns for patient safety. Programs must retain experienced critical care nurses and maintain nursing staff competency with medial equipments and procedures. Continuing precept must not be neglected on the assumption that the nurse can not be spared (Trossman 2000). Closer cooperation and understanding is always needed for the ICU staff members. Having a clear program for ICU patient safety should make the job easier.ConclusionRecognizing the critical linkage amidst nursing workforce and safe and effective outcome for patients, both health provider and professional organizations are committed to work together to pelt along the adoption of evidence based practices known to improve the working nursing environment, patient safety and quality outcomes for patients.This necessitates having a culture that supports patients safety, operating the ICUs as a dedicated team managed by intensive care specialists with change training. Finally, to ensure that the work environments can support the caregivers to interact productively, make proper level titrated vital decisions, perform medical intervention and operate medical equipments safely.ReferencesChang, S. Multz, A. and Hall, J. (2005). Critical care organization. Critical care clinics, 21(5), 43-53.Rainey, G. and Combs, A. (2003). Making the business case for the intensivist directed multidisciplinary team model In Proceedings from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Summit on ICU Quality and Cost. Chicago, IL.Pronovost, P, Angus, D. Dorman, T. et al. (2003). medico staffing pattern and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients A taxonomic review. JAMA 288(17), 2151-2162Savitz, L. Cheryl, B. and Shulamit, B. Quality indicators sensitive to nurse staffing in acute care settings. Advances in patient safety, 4, 375-85. Retrieved from on 24/12/2007.Trossman, S. (2000), Nurses fight short staffing on several major fronts. Am Nurse 32, 1-2.American Psychological standoff (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC American Psychological Association.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Argu workforcets of Christopher toasting versus Daniel John Goldhagen Regarding The German View of the final solutionThe arguments of Christopher Br suffering and Daniel John Goldhagen contrast greatly based on the underlining gist of the Holocaust to ordinary Germans. Why did ordinary citizens participate in the do by of mass murder? Christopher Browning examines the history of a battalion of the locate Police who participated in mass shootings and deportations. He debunks the idea that these ordinary men were simply coerced to hide but stops short of Goldhagens simplistic thesis. Browning uncovers the fact that Major Trapp offered at one time to excuse anyone from the parturiency of killing who was not up to it. Despite this offer, most of the men chose to kill anyway. Brownings traces how these murderers gradually became less squeamish about the killing process and delves into explanations of how and wherefore people could behave in such a manner.Goldhagens book however, ha s the deservingness of opening up a new perspective on ship canal of viewing the Holocaust, and it is the first to raise crucial questions about the extent to which eliminationist antisemitism was present among the German population as a whole. Using drawn-out testimonies from the perpetrators themselves, it offers a chilling insight into the mental and cognitive structures of hundreds of Germans directly complicated in the killing operations. Anti-Semitism plays a primary factor in the argument from Goldhagen, as it is within his belief that anti-Semitism more or less governed the ideational life of civil society in pre-Nazi Germany . Goldhagen express that a Demonological anti-Semitism, of the virulent racial variety, was the common structure of the perpetrators cognit... ...d in is own folk. He was found by Soviet men in his home and taken to Siberia, because he was too young, in their point of view, to not be a member of the Nazi party. This is a man that Goldhagen can not say is a fanatic anti-Semite and because of his own story to me I cannot deem the inherent German population to be Goldhagens ordinary Germans.It is not an easy debate and lead probably never be one but I would anticipate that someone could see that we cannot say something about an entire population. We would have to reckon at each member individually and then I am sure that we would find that some were those ordinary men, that Browning believed and some were the ordinary Germans that Goldhagen believed in.BibliographyBrowning, Christopher R., Ordinary Men. harpist Perennial,New York, 1993Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah. Random House, Inc. New York, 1996
MERCOSURIntroductionThe Sectoral Commission for MERCOSUR (COMISEC) was created on April 1, 1991 by Executive Decree no. 176/991. It is made up of Government Representatives and Delegates from the Office of Planning and Budget bedchamber of Industry of Uruguay National Chamber of Commerce Mercantile Chamber of Uruguay Unions (PIT/CNT) campestral Association of Uruguay Rural Federation of Uruguay Agrarian Cooperatives Association State- avouched Enterprises This decree entrusts COMISEC with the pursuance functions a) Advise the Executive Branch as regards the adoption of internal measures aimed at the application, pursuit and evaluation of the process of regional integration. b) Coordinate and supervise the surgery of the subcommittees. c) Obtain and disseminate information on integration. For its part, Decree 175/991 go disclose April 1, 1991, created the Inter-Ministry commissioning on MERCOSUR and gave the Director of the MERCOSUR Sectoral Commission authority to do the chase a) Plan and propose, to the Inter-Ministry Committee, measures necessary for the orchestration of the internal aspects of the Common Market, paying picky attention to the reconversion of economic activities and the adaptation of the country to the common market. b) Carry out the necessary surveys, and to request the corresponding technical assistance. Uruguay was the first country deep down MERCOSUR that developed this institutional structure - which is foreseen in the constitution - so that the diametrical sectors involved could participate in the integration process. Some Argentine Provinces and well-nigh Brazilian States affirm implemented institutional mechanisms in which the presence of their own social and economic agents is participatory. Paraguay has just recently created, under the Ministry of Integration, the National Committee on Integration and has invited government representatives (ministries), business groups and unions to participate. One of th e goals of COMISEC is to improve the familiarity of the productive sectors and to create mechanisms for the dissemination of information throughout the country. In sum, COMISEC is an on the job(p) environment where the Uruguayan civil society can be stand for in order to best pursue, understand, and disseminate, in a timely manner, the break topics that are relevant to Uruguays future with regard to its insertion in MERCOSUR. As Uruguayans, we all have our concerns especially when we think of the size of our partners, Argentina and Brazil. However, we have already been associated with these countries for many years through preferential commercial agreements. MERCOSUR and Its Origins
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
The Meaning of Love Love has many contrastive meanings to different people. For a child, honey is what he or she feels for his mommy and daddy. To teenage boy, love is what he should feel for his girlfriend of the moment, only because she says she loves him. But as we frig around older and wiser, love becomes more and more confusing. Along with poets and philosophers, people ca-ca been trying to answer that age-old question for centuries What is love?One exposition of love in The Merriam-Webster dictionary is attraction based on inner desire (439). Some people believe that love and sexual practice atomic number 18 one in the same. If two people are in love, they should be having sex. And, on the flipside, if two people are having sex, they must be in love. However, this assumption is obviously not always true. Whether it is right or not to have sex without love is irrelevant the fact is it happens. Just because a person is sexually attracted to another person and has the desire to have sex with that person does not necessarily suggest that this person is in love. He or she could very well be...
1950s Movie Essay Rebel Without A CauseIntroductionRebel Without A Cause is a rattling popular consider from 1955. It depicts life in the 1950s from the viewpoint of three teenagers who support in Los Angeles, California. They live in a comfortable environment in middle-class the States. However, they must deal with their own inabilities to see into society. The teens try to fit in with their peers and find the love they so desperately need from their families and new(prenominal)s deal their peers. The biases presented in the tears are based on cultural values hold the 1950s. Rebel Without A Cause also compares to some of the data presented in the text Nation of Nations. The take aim also compares to the general view America has of the period of the 1950s. For these reasons, Rebel Without A Cause is an essential film in understanding the 1950s. Films Cultural Values or Biases of the 1950sThe film tells a boloney of the restless and somewhat misunderstood disaffected a nd defiant American youth. The film highlights the conformance of 1950s America, through the eyes of the main character, who faces a advanced school environment and unsporting or loving parents. Though the film could be seen as bias, by portraying all 1950s youths as rebellious and engaging in chickie runs and knife fights, who would rather go against the grain of society, the film instead uses this bias to portray more of the internal seeking of new-fangled acceptance and love that all teens of this period were seeking, through rebelliousness and acts of promiscuity. This film has achieved cult status through the years as was the springboard for other 1950s movies trying to portray the same exploitation of teenage ascension and delinquency. Perhaps what makes this film of ... ...tion of the teens who were fighting so hard to buck the corpse and hurly burly into their own independence. By the mid-50s, teens were becoming more rebellious, listening to venereal infection Presl eys music, and wearing clothing that had not been previously acceptable fashion. Prior to the 1950s, children were to be seen and not heard. This movie epitomized the struggle of the younger crowd in the 1950s -- they fought to break free, stand tall, and make an impact on the gentlemans gentleman around them, disregardless of how tough that would be for them. It is important for us to remember that the 1950s were above all, a time of change. Everyone adjusted to those changes differently, but the younger population faced an evolving world that was at times scary and intimidating, as well as provoke and captivating. Learning to balance the changes with the things that stayed the same was the true battle.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Stricter Rules for Hockey ParentsThe sport of hockey has a farsighted proud history of being one of the protrudeperform sports in the world. slap-up excitement for the fans and great fun for the players, but lately there has been too much emphasis on winning in the lower levels. It is rattling hard for squirtren now days to play hockey for the fun of the game.It is non the children themselves, or raze the coaches that put this pressure to win on them. It is the parents of the children who fabricate this pressure. Hockey parents have made winning so important that they both(prenominal) times lose sight of the reason that they are there in the low place. Hockey may be a fast paced, high epinephrine sport (you see more fights in hockey than all early(a) team sport), but parents should leave the body contact to the players. Fortunately, physical vitiate is still not very customary in arenas but any year there are more reports of enraged parents assaulting referees or ot her(a) players due to mishaps that took place during the game. Winning is not the only reason that some parents become upset. There has also been a growing dilemma with parents adequate outraged with coaches for factors as small as the amount of ice time their child receives during a game. There is a growing ambition among parents for their child to succeed in hockey and become a professional even before the child r from each onees adolescence. Although very skillful, physical abuse is still not a common sight in arenas, but it is a serious problem which needs to be corrected. Verbal abuse however, is very common in arenas all over Ontario. Names and threats can be hear coming from the stands at any caliber of hockey at any age. This is also a significant problem which needs to be stopped.The best defense against this kind of behaviour would be to create stricter penalties for anyone parents who get out of control. Anyone who is verbally abusive to officials or coaches should be g iven fines which increase for each infraction. If the abuse continues after three fines then the person should be banned from arenas for a specified amount of time depending on the severity and the oftenness of the instances. If not abuse persists even after the ban the parent should be banned from all minor hockey games for life.
The easterly European Jews had legion(predicate) troubles before immigrating to America. Jews be well getn for overcoming hardships that are thrown at them. In A Bintel abbreviated, they werent exactly overcoming genocide, entirely they were having many hardships that would be tough for anyone including love, missing family members, poverty, and different religious problems. some(prenominal) Jews had nothing but the clothes on their backs when they arrived in America. Few had gold to bring along with them, both though some did have money. The absolute majority of the multitude or families that came to America had to start with nothing, and work from the ground up. approximately of the people were working for a measly two dollars a week. The east European Jews at that time werent working for themselves most of the time. some of the time they had whole families to feed, or they had prior obligations they had to fulfill. many another(prenominal) of the Jewish peoples wage s were put towards a ship fare, to get their family prohibited of Eastern Europe and into the free America. The majority of the Jews were working in shops all over. Many of the Jews were persecuted. They werent allowed to have certain jobs. One instance in the book a mother wrote in for her son, who desperately wanted to be a chemist. The mother was outraged, because many people were saying that they wouldnt use a Jewish chemist. A lot of the immigrated Jews were finding partners that werent of the said(prenominal) religion. The book mentions Gentile and Jewish relationships a countless number of times. Many of the submitters found their relationship with a gentile was not working, that they started out in love, but the other is teaching the wrong things to their children. On the other hand, many Jews were becoming freethinkers. The Bintel Brief itself gave an amazing amount of aid in the accommodation for Jews. All people need is hope, and when theres hope you can do anything. These people poured their hearts out into their letters, and confided in the Bintel Brief for answers. The Bintel Brief in re fun would give sound advice, and would give hope that everything would turn out alright. Because there were few Jewish newspapers, they had nothing else to look forward-moving too, or read. Many of them, just coming from Europe, still did not know English. These people could only read the Yiddish articles.
Monday, March 25, 2019
I. Achievement Goals/Hard Work Here we are towering school graduates. For many of you, tonight is a dream come true. nonetheless I think graduation is the attainment of a coating. A goal requires hard go away. It drives people to better themselves on a daily basis. A dream, however, demands no work, no dedication, and no discipline. It is simply a faint hope. It is when a person turns their dream into a reality that things really start to happen. Goals befuddle to be defined. You need to find something you want and be willing to work for it. Goals should be both short term and long term. Short-term goals preserve be easily attainable steps on the path to bigger goals. It can be something as simple as making it to kinsperson the next day or as difficult as non pushing the snooze button when the alarm goes off in the morning. every way, the focus is kept on where you eventually want to get. If a long-term goal is to be reached you must be willing to do something prevalent to m ake yourself better. It is not always easy, but it is the only way that a dream will ever be turned into reality. II. Enjoy the Pro...
John Woo from Hong Kong to Hollywood, The Killer and await/ get throughJohn Woo and his heroic bloodshed exact revolutionized and rejuvenated the go through genre, combining melodrama with action to create the male melodrama, in which he explores the codes of maleness while redefining them. Robert Hanke says that explosive pyrotechnics seem to be privileged all over plot, narrative or character (Hanke 41) and yet notes that Jillian Sandell maintains the opinion that Woo does not celebrate this violence, but rather uses it to represent a nostalgia for a confounded code of honor and chivalry (Hanke 1999 45). While characterized by violence, Woos films define masculinity within a changing world. He does not rank out to make violent films, defending A let out Tomorrow by saying Its not a gangster movie. Its a film about chivalry, about honor, but set in the modern world. I want to teach the new coevals What is friendship? What is brotherhood? What have we lost? What we have to get back. (Logan 1995 116), a statement that can be applied to both The Killer (1989) and portray/Off (1997). In The Killer, Jeff and Stanley are nostalgic about the past, saying how things have changed. Loss is a literal theme in both movies, as Jeff tries to regain Sallys sight and in Face/Off Archer has lost his son and seeks to regain a sense of identity and purpose, and ultimately a son. Woo makes his films to fill this lack that he sees in the modern world.He is influenced by many different films and n...
Sunday, March 24, 2019
Bio 16 year old high school bookmanEssayGambling addict Connor ONeil ends up deep in debt after he borrows currency from almost every loan store in town to fuel his addiction. In order to pay the mounds of money that he owes, he is requested to coach a little-league baseball team, the Kekambas. At first, Connor doesnt start attain right with the kids and doesnt see the smudge of him being there. yet though Connor paid the kids no attention, they were somehow stimulate by his presence. Later, He realizes that he must come to grips at what he wants in his life, and ultimately forms a special bond with the kids on the team.At the beginning of the movie, we see Connor ONeil at his worst. The personality traits he has argon reflective of an orange. One of the more positive traits is being able to wages decisive action. This batch been seen in beginning of the movie, where he is in throng office, and he immediately decides to coach the Kekambas, after the promise of a crocked inc ome. Connor shows that he likes sports, by always watching or betting on basketball games, and baseball games. Another good trait is his ability to calculate problems, as he did when there was a shortage in jerseys. He solved this problem by telling G-baby of the shortage, but still allow him stay on the team. He is very much a risk-taker, and loves to springy for the moment. This can be proven, as he is constantly gambling in the beginning, even if he needs to borrow money to pay off his huge debts. Connor possesses many typical behaviours of an out-of-esteem orange, as well. First, he uses stimulants, such as drugs, alcohol, cigarettes and etc., when things dont go his way, as seen in first twosome of scenes. Second, he is physically aggressive, as shown in the quote, no one can kick my ass better than I can. Third he showed that he wanted to drop out of coaching the Kekambas by saying, Im bailing out, when he found it uninteresting. Finally, he lied to Ms. Wilks, by saying he was a businessman, who just finished an errand in Canada. Even though Connor is wary of coaching at first, he begins to see the acidulated reality of the kids lives and the nature of being brought up in such a tough neighborhood.
Abstr encounter My musical composition deals with responses to conversational mockery in devil diametrical contexts. As an interaction analyst I am interested in how interlocutors co-construct the whole conversational sequence, in what they do with the ironic act in reacting to it. I combine data analytic methods from reciprocal sociolinguistics with questions from cognition theory. I shall point out how the interaction analysis of different response types contributes to the development of banter theory. A look at two data sets (informal conversations among friends and pro- and con-TV-discussions) provides interesting differences in responses to irony in these contexts. One meaning(a) difference in responding appears to depend on whether the irony is framed and tacit as critical or as friendly. From the format of the responses we can often access the processing of the ironic (though not al bureaus). If there are responses to the misprint meaning and to the implicatum, we ca n take this as evidence that principally twain the implicated and the literal message is processed. We find five response types Responses to the literal, to the implicated, complicated types, just express feelingster and ambiguous types which do not allow us to assign a meaning. The data further confirm that the different types of responses to irony create different activity types Responses to the literal develop a pleasing discourse type of joint teasing. These are highly frequent during the dinners among friends. In the context of pro and con debates responses within the group differ in connection to the line of arguing. Responses to the implicatum are much more frequent here. They recontextualize the paginate 2serious debate. Very often, those who share the general opinion of the ironist, laugh - those who do not reject the implication of the ironic act. 1. IntroductionThis paper is contributing to a neglected area of irony research, the reception of irony in contexts of fac e-to-face interaction. I would like to show that the reception of irony in different conversational contexts can give us insights into the way irony is processed. I cast a critical glance at cognition-oriented irony research which works with data from lab settings. The greatest differences amongst lab state of affairss and natural conversations are (a) in the first type of situation the irony recipients are not affected by the ironic act and (b) have no opportunity to continue the interaction and thus to manikin and co-construct it. I have reason to think that the way an addressee is
Saturday, March 23, 2019
Fishing and hunting have been at the core of numerous American Indian cultures like the Nisqually since precontact. Indian hunting, seeking and gathering were conducted thusas they argon nownot for sport, but for food and for a livelihood. This was well understood by the early colonists and later by the U.S. government. Thus, numerous of the treaties (e.g., Medicine Creek, 1854) negotiated between the federal government and Indian tribes in the nineteenth century contained provisions guaranteeing proper(a)s to hunt and fish. In the treaty negotiated by Isaac Stevens, the tribe ceded to the U.S. any(prenominal) of the Nisqually villages and prairies, but Article Three reserved the tribes right to fish at all usual and accustomed grounds and sendin common with all citizens of the Territory. (FL 12) But the growth of the European American population, and with it the proliferation of fenced lands, the destruction of natural habitat, and often the destruction of wildlife itself, dr astically curtailed the Indians ability to arrest on these activities. Charles Wilkinsons thesis declares that the messages from Franks Landing are messages about ourselves, about the natural world, about societies past, about this society, and about societies to come. (FL 6) billy club affectionately described his homeland (the key component of peoplehood i.e., the Nisqually watershed on South Puget Sound of the Nisqually River, creeks (Muck Creek), rolling prairie and forestland as well as the foothills of the cascade Mountains and Mt Rainier) as a magical place where his family never wished for anything fish from the watershed, vegetables up on the prairie, medicines, shellfish, and huckleberriesclean water, clean air. He describes the reaching of L... ...s preferred by them or by the state. In 1974 Judge Boldt command that a fair share meant Indian fishers are entitled to half(prenominal) (50%) of the harvestable catch of salmon. (FL 50) After a short-term negative b acklash, the long-term proceeds has been cooperation between federal, state and tribal governments over fish harvests and resource heed since the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Boldt decision in U.S. v. Washington (1980). (FL 50) Billys commitment to his traditional way of life did not end with the arresting Boldt decision. (FL 56)He became chairman of the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission in baffle to speak for the salmon on behalf of treaty tribes in Western Washington. down the stairs his leadership, and through his exceptional skills as a negotiator, the tribes gained a reputation for beingness unsurpassed in their abilities as natural resource managers.
The characters in Aimee Benders The Rememberer and Franz Kafkas The Metamorphosis are all adjusting to life after their fill out ones started to change. On each story the characters behaviors change and the reaction to each commendation produce a different perspective on life. Benders The Rememberer the narrator and Ben are lambrs presenting a physical and intellectual connection to each other lamentableness He was always sad about the word. It was a large reason why I love him. Wed place together and be sad and think about being sad and sometimes discuss sadness (Bender 101).The narrator becomes sadder as Ben transform from a human to an ape, and finally a sea turtle. She is aware that Ben is somewhere within the ape. At first she wanted to find the reason for the transformation. She becomes his protector, telling strangers and coworker he was ill, she did not want anything to happen to Ben. Then she fells lonely and she want to to take care of my lover like a son, a pet (Ben der 102), hoping to bear Ben as long as she could. But the reality was that he is bygone and she could not see him again. She finally realizes she have to let him go, because it was difficult for her to sojourn to see Ben in these consideratenesss and without a sign of the human being she love so much. The characters of Kafkas The Metamorphosis are similar in the prognosis that the family members of Gregor the main character are going to a transformation as well. But they take a different commence than the Narrator and Ben in Benders The Rememberer. In Kafkas The Metamorphosis Gregor is traveler salesman that becomes a giant insect. He is his family providers and this transformation jeopardizes his job. As he struggles with his physical condition and worri... ...ntil people do not become familiar and educated they do not know how to handle such situations. These histories have a carnal knowledge to people suffering with mental or physical conditions. The person unnatural b y such personal change may do not understand what is happening to them, while the family and friends may do not how to approach changes. They may feel alone and make difficult decisions like correct them for the ill person. Instead of providing the love and comfort on times of call for we become cowards and look the other way pretending nothing is happening. playact CITEDBender, Aimee. The Rememberer. The Story and Its Writer. Charters, Ann. Compact eighth ed. Boston Bedford/ST. Martins, 2011. 100-102. PRINT.Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. The Story and Its Writer. Charters, Ann. Compact 8th ed. Boston Bedford/ST. Martins, 2011. 471-505. PRINT.
Friday, March 22, 2019
Black and WhiteFollowing the elegant War, just prior to the turn of the century, manyAmerican novelist were writing more(prenominal) freely of the previous buckle d receive culture. Twoof these writers being Mark bracing and Charles Chesnutt. Mark Twain was apopular sporty author by this time. Charles Chesnutt, the son of free pitch-blacks,decided to pursue a dream of become an author in order to remove the spirit ofracism. By analyze these authors in particular, the views of a white raised inthe slave retentivity south are juxtaposed with the views of free black. Both Twainand Chesnutt make fun whites in different ways through their literature. Twainalso displays round unfavorable preconceptions of blacks. This can be attri thoedto his get upbringing in the slave holding south.The main character of the Chesnutt stories is an old Negro man,previously a slave, who engages his new white employers in many twaddles about lifeon the plantation. Uncle Julius relays these stori es with much detail. Though,at the conclusion of apiece, the reader is left wondering whether the tale wastrue or if Uncle Julius had conceived of it merely to satisfy his own desires.Chesnutt has added to the end of each story an ulterior motive of Uncle Juliusthat seems to be met by the telling of his tales. By doing this, Chesnuttdiscretely satirizes whites in general.In the first story, The Goophered Grapevine, Uncle Julius tells of aconjure woman position a goopher on the grapevines, causing all blacks that eatthe grapes to die inwardly one year. This story is relayed upon the first meetingof the northern white duette (John and Annie) and the native South Carolinian.After telling his tale of Henry and the others that suffered from this spell,Uncle Julius concludes that these northerners should non buy this vineyard,adding conveniently that he is not afraid to eat the grapes because he know the ole vimes fum de noo ones.John decides to buy the farm in spite of Uncle Juliuss warnings, but hedoes offer him employment as a coachman. It seems as if Uncle Julius had been nerve-wracking to guarantee his usefulness on the plantation even after its sale. Waswhite man tricked into believing Julius knowledge would be useful in the transformation of the vineyards? Chesnutt lets the reader wonder, but regardless ofhis tale being ... ... of blacks, especially her own blackheritage. When scolding her son Tom for refusing to challenge the twins, Roxyblames his cowardice on de ringtail in him. After noting all of the predominantwhite members of his pedigree, she concludes that de nigger is his soul.Twain seems to have some assumptions of his own that blacks have no vanityin their own heritage.Twain and Chesnutt both satirize whites, but in different ways. Twain,being a white, satirizes the slave holding south, rather than whites in general.Chesnutt, on the other hand, uses a couple from the north in a story set in thefree south. Chesnutt also is more descrete in h is satire, era Twain pokes fundirectly. Twain also displays some of his own prejudices, being a white tryingto explain the black culture. On the contrary, Chesnutt honestly portraysblacks from an inside perspective. Roxy was ashamed of the black blood in her,while Uncle Julius seemed to be a proud old man, happy to tell of his blackfriends and past. From the analysis these literary selections we can gain agreater consciousness of racial views but, one may say that everything is not as naive as black and white